Global Negotiation Situation Article Analysis

Global Negotiation Situation Article Analysis University of Phoenix Organizational Negotiations MGT/445 July 11, 2011 Global Negotiation Situation Article Analysis Negotiation Strategy Article Analysis The best alternative to a negotiated agreement is what every organization needs to fulfill their wants and needs. This is an advantage because they clench a clear target to which they can match any assigned agreement. The two articles discussed within this paper state two alternative negotiation situations that are compared to my current work setting.

The first article involves a United States company named Kennecott during the 1960’s in hopes of a contract renegotiation with the Chilean government. The second case discusses the free trade agreement between Canada and the U. S in 1987. Both cases will reflect a comparison to my personal work setting negotiation agreement as an internet marketing consultant. During the 1960’s a United States company named Kennecott was beginning to move into renegotiation agreements regarding the contract with the Chilean government concerning the “El Teniente” copper mine.

In this moment Chile’s best alternative to negotiated agreement seemed overpoweringly resilient. The government was infatuated of a resilient pro authority position towards foreign organizations of its natural properties. The Chilean government had the option of establishing their own strict financial terms or the possibility of decreasing to renegotiate by merely discharging Kennecott from their association completely by seizing the mine. Chile had its own experts to sustain its useful natural resources.

Realizing their best alternative to negotiated agreement was fragile; Kennecott officials brainstormed a very innovative solution that eventually destabilized Chile’s standing while influencing their own BATNA more positively by producing value for each organization. Here is a short summary of the negotiation situation between Kennecott and Chile. The contract entailed Kennecott proposing to sell a bulk of equity interest in the “El Teniente” mining processes to the Chilean government. Chile did not actually care to dissociate the financial terms f the sale into U. S. banks, Kennecott insisted to use the assets, united with an external advance, to finance the coalmine’s development. This endorsed Chile to sanction its patriotic benefits and ensure superior financial increase from forthcoming profits. Kennecott renegotiated and was able to launch a solid partnership that was equally accepted by both parties. Next, Kennecott then convinced the Chilean government to support the loan and obligate this promise topic to the state of New York.

Formerly, as several of the organization’s mining properties as conceivable remained covered with U. S. funded securities, contrary to the possible seize threat. Kennecott then discussed that the copper amount produced originated from the development, would be traded solely to businesses in the United States and Europe. Finally, the privileges to accumulate from the fresh agreements would be traded to an association of monetary associations centered in Europe Japan, the United States. This certified a larger mixture in the consumer base and surplus partners.

Finally, because of the protection guarantees attained by Kennecott, regardless of the renegotiations collapsing, Kennecott had prospered in defending a worthy percentage of its benefits if Chile elects to proceed onward and correct the “El Teniente” copper mine. Furthermore, the organization may perhaps also request support from its other allies to piece as partners. At long last, a number of years later, the copper mine was in due course confiscated by Chile, although Kennecott remained in a far healthier situation than it had originally existed beforehand to renegotiate the contract.

The United States organization Kennecott improved its BATNA by constructing an agreement the Chileans could not decline. By making significant changes the United States protected their benefits even if negotiations folded. The agreement was handled appropriately with low risk establishing a win-win situation. If a smaller company wants to form a partnership with a larger company, there are two obstacles that the smaller company must overcome to prosper in the cooperation procedure. The following article summary involves parallel negotiation ideals.

In the 1970’s, the economic health upswing of Canada fell like the famous yo-yo. Canada was excessively resource grounded and called to increase some momentum to its industrial production to relieve the economy. An imperial directive determined that Canada’s solitary means to accomplish this steadiness was to employ in an open unrestricted trade partnership truth with the United States. The difficulty was that the United States was not particularly fascinated in such a free trade partnership settlement. The United States was also growing into an increasingly preferential state throughout this equal stretch of time.

The outcome was that Canada was confronted with a full host of forfeits and internal illegal activities against Canadian goods. Canada obviously required a strategy. The opening that Canada appropriated was in the method of provision by cultivating a concise proposal. A dominant representative, Simon Reisman, was selected by the Canadian Head of state and customized an improvised union named the trade negotiations office (TNO). The trade negotiations office reported straight to the Canadian Cabinet and had full access to the top ranks in system of government.

It recognized a perfectly well matched terms of their negotiation objectives and intentions which comprised a solid clash resolution instrument that the Canadians knew were crucial to their triumphant negotiations. In dissimilarity, the United States did not think that the free trades agreement was to be exclusively essential and allowed Canada to work it all out. The single reason why the United States Upper house even reflected the free trades agreement plan was because of a two-sided line to exchange.

Also, because they were exhausted of the prior instruments that were unsuccessful to resolve a host of trade disagreement annoyances amongst the two nations identified as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The Canadians tried every benefit accessible containing the routines of pinnacle meetings amongst the front-runners of both countries to draw attention to their distresses at each occasion. The political powers of the United States forced the Canadian negotiators to walk away to alleviate their discontent.

The meetings amongst the two countries were effectively resolved. Numerous businesses were prepared by both republics. The Canadians attained their focal objectives of accomplishing permitted admittance to the United States economy, while employing a stout trade quarrel purpose arrangement. The trade agreement was the biggest mutual trade affiliation worldwide. Canada succeeded its intentions because of its thorough preparation and the concentrated focus of its converting team regardless of the irregularity in supremacy amongst the two countries.

In my personal experience of relating to these two negotiation situations is regarding new employment as an internet marketing consultant. My negotiation style will be presenting a win-win situation for both parties Pro’s Inc. and myself. My only request is a respectable salary plus commission and bonuses to match my current employment as a salesman. My arguments will include factual documents of production, results, accomplishments, and industry standard average salaries as an internet consultant.

My current direct marketing approach as an outside premise coordinator for the Welk Resorts has helped develop a strong communication channel to persuading consumers. If my new employer accepts my negotiation agreement the objective was accomplished if not I must back up my preparation to find an acceptable contract. My best alternative to a negotiated agreement correlates to the Chilean government case because the products and services Pros Inc. offers is my specialty which means an easier sale for both parties.

Then again my unevenness in control with a small background in online business is my weakness that could be a factor. By using stout trade disagreement arrangements I can accomplish my objectives just like Kennecott and the Canadians did. References The Negotiation Experts. (1996-2010). Contract Renegotiation “renegotiate government contracts | Negotiation Experts. Retrieved from http://www. negotiations. com/case/contract-renegotiation/ The Negotiation Experts. (1996-2010). Power Negotiation Style to Win Over a Stronger Partner | Negotiation Experts. Retrieved from http://www. negotiations. com/case/power-negotiation/

Case Study Using Demand and Supply Analysis

QUESTION 1 The demand for the apartments around that particular area will be relatively inelastic. When demand is relatively inelastic, a large amount of change in the price will still cause a small amount of change in the quantity. Assume that if there is a large amount of decrease in the price, it will only cause a small amount of increase in the quantity because the demand is relatively inelastic. Thus, the demand curve will be steeper. The factors that will cause the demand to be relatively inelastic are that the people who live in that area be likely to stay in that area because they cannot afford to live in other areas of the city.

They prefer to live with people of their ethnic group and there is a discrimination against them in other areas of the city. Although the rents are very high percent of people’s incomes, they will still tend to stay in that particular area. Furthermore, the apartment has become necessity to the people who live in that particular area. Although there is substitute goods in other area of the city but they still tend to stay with their ethnic group because they don’t want to live with different ethnic people.

Thus, this caused the demand for apartments on that area to be relatively inelastic. In short-run, the demand tends to be inelastic because currently only that particular area is composed exclusively of apartments and is populated by low-income residents. However, in long-run maybe other area of the city will also have better apartments, same ethnic group, lower rental and other factors therefore the demand will be elastic in the long-run. On QUESTION 3 Figure 1. 0 will show the elasticity of demand will be at (D1). Price will be at (P1) and quantity will be at (Q1).

Equilibrium will be at point A. The demand curve will be steeper. QUESTION 2 The price elasticity of supply measures the relative response of a change in quantity supplied to a change in price. More specifically the price elasticity of supply is the percentage change in quantity supplied due to a percentage change in price. A given percentage change in price leads to a smaller percentage change in quantity supplied. When supply is inelastic producers find it very hard to change their production levels in given a time period.

The supply of apartments around that particular area will be relatively inelastic. In short-run, the factors that will affect the supply to be relatively inelastic are that due to the time period. Producers are unable to increase the supply of apartments in a short time period. For example, producer cannot suddenly build five apartments in one week. This indicates that no matter how high is the demand, the producers are still unable to produce due to the time period. However in long-run, producers can increase its production due to the time period.

The supply of the apartments will be elastic if there is plenty of spare capacity on that particular area, producer should be able to increase its output without an increase in costs and therefore supply will be elastic in response to a change in demand. However, the area is composed with exclusively of apartments. Producer cannot increase the supply because there is a limited land to expand no matter how high is the demand. Limited resources and labour also will affect the elasticity of supply because if there is not enough resources and labour, producer cannot build the apartments.

Thus, the supply of the apartments will be relatively inelastic. On QUESTION 3 Figure 1. 0 will show the elasticity of supply will be at (S1). Price will be at (P1) and quantity will be at (Q1). Equilibrium will be at point A. The supply curve will be steeper. QUESTION THREE [pic] QUESTION FOUR [pic] When government creates a rent supplement program to the consumer, demand for the apartment will increase because government helps the consumer to pay maximum 30% of resident income in rent. Any extra additional rent that exceeded will be paid by the government up to a limit.

This will lighten up their burden by decreasing their expenses and totally income also will rise. Therefore, the demand curve will increase because tenants pay lesser to rent the apartments and spending power of tenants also will increase. Thus, this will lead into a situation of shortage. For instants, renter’s salary is RM1000 and the tenant’s only needs to pay RM300 and the rest will be paid by the government. Figure 2. 0 shows when demand has increased it will shift the demand curve to the right from (D1) to (D2). Apart from that, price will also increase from (P1) to (P2) and this will lead to the quantity increase from (Q1) to (Q2).

Equilibrium point has shifted from point (A) to point (B). The supply curve remains unchanged. During the beginning of this supplement program, the renters of the apartment will gain apart from their 30% that paid by the government because the tenants will pay lesser for their rental expenses. Hence, the government will lose from the beginning. On the other hands in the future, renters of the apartment will lose from this supplement program because when time passes by the demand will increase and the owner or the producer of the apartment will increase its rents.

Government will only pay the certain amount of money up to a limit for the renter. Therefore, the tenants will lose from this situation, while the owner or the producers of the apartments will gain the most. Lastly, government will remain unchanged because government can gain back the money from the supplement program from the taxes that paid by the tenants or the producers. QUESTION FIVE [pic] When government decides to provide a building subsidy to the producer to build apartment in this low-income area and a certain percentage of their costs will be paid by the government, supply of the apartment will increase.

This will lead to a decrease on producer cost of production and decrease in price. Moreover, producers also can start to build more apartments than previously and increase contraction technology in order to build faster and safer because government will pay some of the cost on building apartments. This will lead to a profit for producers in order to build more and better quality apartments such as luxury condominium and others. Thus, this will lead to a surplus because of excess supply. Figure 3. 0 will show that when supply has increased, it will shift the supply curve to the right from (S1) to (S2).

The subsidy reduces the price of the apartments from (P1) to (P2). When the price has fall, quantity of the apartments will increase from (Q1) to (Q2). The total amount spend by the government on the subsidy will be at shaded area of the graph. Finally, the equilibrium point has changes from A to B. The demand curve remains unchanged. In the short-run, the producers and the renters of the apartment will gain because government impose subsidy. This will lead the government to lose because government spends a lot of money.

However, in the long-run, the producer and government will gain because government can cover up its expenses through taxes paid by the producers and the renters of the apartments. REFERENCE LIST: • Jackson J. , Mclver R. , Bajada and Hettihew (2004) “Economic Principles” McGraw Hill, Australia. • Jackson and Mclver (2001), “ Microeconomics and Macroeconomics “ • Economics for business and management edited by Alan Griffiths and Stuart Wall • http://tutor2u. net/economics/content/topics/marketsinaction/producer_subsidies. htm • http://tutor2u. et/economics/presentations/aseconomics/markets/ConsumerProducerSurplus/default. html • http://tutor2u. net/economics/content/topics/elasticity/elasticity_of_supply. htm ———————– Figure 1. 0 Price Quantity Equilibrium A Q1 D1 Relatively inelastic S1 Relatively inelastic P1 0 Figure 2. 0 S1 P2 P1 D2 D1 Price Quantity A B 0 Q1 Q2 Figure 3. 0 P1 P2 Price Quantity Q1 Q2 A B S1 S2 D1 Subsidy 0 Relatively inelastic demand and supply curve. Increase in demand of supplement program curve Increase in supply government subsidy

Reasons Why People Come Into Your Life

I have mixed emotions about people that have come and have gone in my life…there were those who left because the level of intimacy was based on unbalanced time-sharing and other reasons for not maintaining something that could stick and stay. What bothers me more is when their mannerisms change, they become incognito, and make themselves scarce once they feel that things are not conducive to their train of thought as opposed to seeing how the friendship can be saved for the long term. Yes, people have motives that they tend to hold close to vest and out of your sight.

Now comes the time for me to assess those that fit this category. I’ve always felt that when you know which one it is, you will know what to do for that person. You will not be caught unawares because you are alert, aligned and less arrogant. Check my logic out here why people come into your life for a reason. When someone is in your life for a REASON, it is usually to meet a need you have expressed. They have come to assist you through a difficulty, to provide you with guidance and support, to aid you physically, emotionally or spiritually. They may seem like a godsend and they are.

They are there for the reason you need them to be. Then, without any wrongdoing on your part or at an inconvenient time, this person will say or do something to bring the relationship to an end. Sometimes they die, or fade into anonymity. Sometimes circumstances dictate that they go in another direction leaving you to wonder; sometimes they walk away, uncaring and unwilling. Sometimes they act up and force you to take a stand, hoping that enmity hasn’t reared its ugly head. What we must realize is that our need has been met, our desire fulfilled, their work is done.

Reasons can go against you…but when it does, all you can do is assess it for what it’s worth, monitor subsequent correspondences, make your decision and now it is time to move on. Some people come into your life for a SEASON. They may only be there for a short period of time based on premeditated agendas; they may have motives that are not condoned by you, or because your turn has come to share with them in growing or learning new initiatives for the future. If all things are good, they may bring you an experience of peace, or make you laugh. They may introduce you to new routines and techniques that you have never experienced.

They usually give you an unbelievable amount of joy. Believe it, it is real. But only for a season — they move on. Seasonal tidings with this situation usually deal with those that are going through changes, can’t cope with certain situations that cause them to step outside of comfort zones, or are unwilling to take chances. Other seasonal fold readily recognizes their own kind, and will not hesitate to cut you loose. LIFETIME relationships are harder to recognize for the moment, but with time can be the best choice you can make. But how many people do you know are willing to persevere for the long haul?

Find one and I guarantee you will have him or her as someone trustworthy. Life timers teach you lifetime lessons, things you must build upon in order to have a solid emotional foundation. They accept you for what you are, do not prematurely judge you, do not have any inhibitions about taking chances for the betterment of the relationship, and surely feel that compatibility is something that is assessed as you go, not at the spur of the moment. They don’t adhere to conditions and will be there during the zero hour. There’s GOT to be something that you can learn from this type of person.

Your job is to accept the lesson, love the person, and put what you have learned to use in all other relationships and areas of your life. This is Agape Love at it’s core.. the type of love that God is. It is said that love is blind but friendship is clairvoyant. Silence doesn’t suppose to be as ominous to cut deep like the sharpest knife. To be cut loose dangling trying to fathom how it went south is to understand that directional change does not have to be defined by ill winds and misplaced logic, but by common sense and discernable options working for the best.

I thank all the people I’ve met in my lifetime who have lent me their ears, allowed me to belong, gave me love and let me love them back. I’m all the better because somewhere, somehow, and someone have given me hope that friendship is not fleeting, integrity is intrusive, and that good intent coupled with works can be a true embodiment of comraderie for as long as it is deemed necessary to embrace a true friend! And for those that I’ve called a friend at some point in my life, you will always be one…but know that you will not be forgotten.

Pride and Prejudice Analysis

Literary Analysis for Pride and Prejudice Literary Analysis for Pride and Prejudice Title: The title “Pride and Prejudice is most appropriate for the novel because the story centers upon the love story between Elizabeth Bennet and Mr. Darcy and the obstacles (especially their own personal faults) both must overcome before they can find romantic felicity with one another.

Elizabeth must overcome her “prejudice” which causes her to make hasty and harsh judgments about others and quickly dismiss them; whereas Darcy exhibits excessive “pride” as a result of his high birth and societal status making too aware of his superiority over others and act with excessive pride. Author: Jane Austen, like her character Elizabeth in Pride and Prejudice, grew up in the late 18th to 19th century rural England. She grew up in a middle class society with six other siblings and a sister whom she adored named Cassandra.

Her father was a clergyman for the Church of England, they were well off compared to others but did suffer money problems. Jane and her sister were educated at home in “ladylike” fashion and taught music, drawing, needlework, and other skills along with being well-read. Jane, much like Elizabeth, was tall and graceful, with dark hair and beautiful hazel eyes, she enjoyed parties, liked to dance, and had numerous suitors. As it turned out, however, neither Jane nor her sister Cassandra ever married.

After her father’s passing, Jane’s family was supported by the wealth acquired by one of her brother’s. Setting: The story takes place in early19th century England, among middle class society. The plot is mostly set at Mr. Bennet’s modest estate in Longbourn, but occasionally moves from the estate to the nearby Netherfield estate belonging to Mr. Bingley, to the provincial town of Meryton within walking distance from the Bennet estate where the younger Bennet girls frequent to visit the stationed militia, and finally to the distant grand estate of Pemberely belonging to Mr.

Darcy’s family. Atmosphere: The atmosphere is formal and realistic. Formal, because the women and families the story centers around must live up to the 19th century standards of the middle class society. And realistic, because despite the story’s focal on love Austen handles the subject practically. Mood: With the intensifying love between Elizabeth and Darcy, along with the added pressures from their families, friends, society, and even themselves upon their relationship, the reader is often anxious and excited to see what occurs next in their relationship and their lives

Protagonist: Elizabeth is the protagonist of Pride and Prejudice because the story ultimately focuses on her and her evolution that leads her to finally be with her true love Mr. Darcy. She exhibits all the qualities of a strong 19th century heroine she’s lovely, clever, skilled, well-versed, honest, virtuous, witty and able to rise above the idiocy and bad behavior that pervade society. However, despite all her good qualities, Elizabeth is quick to make harsh and hasty judgments concerning others often this attribute of her character leads her astray in life and away from her love Mr.

Darcy. Elizabeth must not only cope with a half-witted mother, a detached father, mismanaged and ill-taught younger siblings, and a snobbish, judgmental society, she must also overcome her own mistaken impressions of Darcy, which initially lead her to reject him. Her charms are sufficient to keep him interested, fortunately, while she navigates familial and social turmoil. Fortunately, while Elizabeth deals with familial and societal troubles, she has the opportunity to see the nobility of Darcy’s character and amend her initial erroneous judgments of Darcy.

Antagonist: The snobby society ladies, especially Ms. Bingley and Lady Catherine who try to prevent the union between Elizabeth and Darcy by convincing either of them they wouldn’t be a good match because of Elizabeth’s low connections and Darcy’s wealth, in order to achieve their own personal goals. Plot: Exposition- A gentleman named Bingley moves to town, the Bennet girls go to his ball where Jane and Bingley become introduced and begin to become increasingly attached to one another. Darcy and Elizabeth meet but they immediately dislike one another.

Narrative Hook-After subsequent meeting Darcy begins to be charmed by Elizabeth, although she continues to dislike him. Rising Action- Ms. Bingley, noticing Darcy’s affections for Elizabeth begins to become increasingly spiteful to Jane and Elizabeth during Jane’s stay at the Bingley residence as she has fallen sick. When Jane and Elizabeth return home, Mr. Collins, their pompous cousin is their to visit to find a bride. Mr. Collins soon proposes to Elizabeth only to be rejected much to the dismay of Elizabeth’s mother.

Meanwhile, the Bennet girls have become friendly with militia officers stationed in a nearby town. Among them is Wickam, a handsome young soldier who is friendly toward Elizabeth and tells her how Darcy cruelly cheated him out of an inheritance, further prejudicing Elizabeth against Darcy. Mr. Collins marries Charlotte, Elizabeth’s friend. Elizabeth eventually goes to visit Charlotte and Collins who serves Lady Catherine, who’s Darcy’s aunt. Meanwhile Jane goes to London to visit Bingley but is only treated maliciously by his sisters and is never seen by him.

Darcy calls on Lady Catherine and encounters Elizabeth, whose presence leads him to make a number of visits to the Collins’s home, where she is staying. One day, he makes a shocking proposal of marriage, which Elizabeth quickly refuses. She tells Darcy that she considers him arrogant and unpleasant, then scolds him for steering Bingley away from Jane and disinheriting Wickham. Darcy leaves but sends a letter informing Elizabeth about Wickam’s propensity for lying and seducing young girls.

Elizabeth reevaluates Darcy, then goes to his estate Pemberely where she accidentally runs into him causing her to think of him differently and warm up to him. Climax- Wickam seduces Elizabeth’s sister Lydia, this act will disgrace the family name and prevent Elizabeth and Darcy from ever being together, in spite of Elizabeth’s changing feelings about Darcy. But the event allows Darcy to prove himself finally and entirely to Elizabeth by using his power to force Wickam to marry Lydia and save the Bennet family from disgrace Falling Action- Bingley returns to Netherfield and resumes his courtship of Jane.

Darcy goes to stay with him. Bingley proposes to Jane, to the delight of everyone While the family celebrates, Lady Catherine de Bourgh pays a visit to Longbourn. She corners Elizabeth and says that she has heard that Darcy, her nephew, is planning to marry her. Since she considers a Bennet an unsuitable match for a Darcy, Lady Catherine demands that Elizabeth promise to refuse him. Elizabeth spiritedly refuses, saying that she is not engaged o Darcy, but that she will not promise anything against her own happiness. Resolution- Darcy proposes to Elizabeth, she tenderly accepts. Soon after Elizabeth and Darcy and Jane and Bingley are all married Point of View: Pride and Prejudice is mainly told from third person point of view from an external observer, but occasionally the novel departs from the objective to tell the story from the point of view to explore the thoughts and feelings of one of its characters, either Mr. Darcy or Elizabeth.

The focus moves to Darcy when he begins to fall in love with Elizabeth then to Elizabeth when she begins to contemplate her life and behavior in contrast to the lives and behavior of those around her. Organization: The plot is organized to show the interplay of “pride” and “prejudice” between both Elizabeth and Darcy. From their first meeting at the ball his “pride” incites her “prejudice” and as their meetings progress although he is increasingly charmed by her, Darcy is too proud to allow his true feelings to show through causing her to dismiss him until he finally proposes and she rejects him.

After this first proposal and rejection, Darcy is soon humbled and dedicates himself to proving himself to her, as he lowers his facade of pride and arrogance she begins to warm up to him until she loves him as much as he loves her. Foreshadowing: When Elizabeth goes to visit Mr. Darcy’s estate at Pemberely and begins to see his magnificent embodied in the grandeur of the mansion, this foreshadows Elizabeth returning Darcy’s affections and one day marrying him Symbols: 1) Pemberely- Pemberely acts as a symbol of its owner Darcy.

Like Pemberely, Darcy’s beauty and good attributes eventually enchant Elizabeth. Also like the estate, Darcy possesses warmth, majesty, beauty, formality, and has no facades. Imagery: Austen describes into detail the estate at Pemberely, when Elizabeth first visits it. Austen describes the setting of the magnificent estate to express the beauty and good taste that impresses Elizabeth so much about the house that eventually becomes manifested within the owner, Mr. Darcy and allows Elizabeth to fall in love with Darcy and return his affections.

Irony: Elizabeth, when Darcy first proposes harshly turns him down and vows that she would never marry him, but at the end does so eagerly and willingly. Motif: 1) Courtship: Pride and Prejudice recounts the story of two courtships one between Darcy and Elizabeth and one between Bingley and Jane. Within these two their are many others such as Mr. Collins’s aborted courtship of Elizabeth, followed by his successful wooing of Charlotte Lucas; Wickham’s pursuit for Elizabeth the to her sister Lydia. Ms. Bingley’s attempt at attracting Mr. Darcy.

Each courtship plays an important role because the end result eventually becomes marriage 2) Connections: In the class driven society of 19th century England, marriage was not necessarily about love but about the connections that one spouse can create for the other and the doors into obtaining more money and moving up in class that one can open. Repeatedly throughout the story, Elizabeth Bennet is repeatedly ridiculed for possibly being a good match for Mr. Darcy, despite her good qualities and his love for her, but because she doesn’t have good connections for Mr. Darcy to advance upon. Even when Mr.

Darcy proposes for the first time he focuses too much on how bad they would be for one another because of her low connections rather on how much he loves and admires her. Theme: 1) Love: The love story between Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth Bennet show a love story between two who overcome societal pressures. Elizabeth must overcome her “prejudice” which caused her to judge Darcy harshly and hastily and Darcy must overcome his “pride” that makes him arrogant and unsociable. The couple must overcome the societal pressures of Lady Catherine, who tries to keep the poor Elizabeth from marrying her affluent nephew, the snobby Ms.

Bingley who tries to destroy Elizabeth and Darcy’s relationship by convincing Darcy that Elizabeth’s low connections can’t sustain him, Wickam’s attempts to slander Darcy and further prejudice Elizabeth, and Mrs. Bennet’s rudeness and harsh judgments of Darcy. But despite all these obstacles, Darcy and Elizabeth’s relationship overcomes societal pressures showing that love and marriage can work without any societal or economic motives attached. Style: Austen uses fluid prose and brilliant dialogue to create Pride and Prejudice.

Along with formal yet simple diction to create a realistic, 19th century tone. Also the point of view gives a mostly objective perspective of the story, but allows insight into the protagonist Elizabeth to reveal Elizabeth’s wit and criticism of the world and herself show through. Other Works: This story relates to the first Jane Austen story Sense and Sensibility in the fact that both centers around the lives of two sisters who must overcome societal and personal pressures and failings in order to achieve domestic bliss and love in early 19th century middle class society England.

Accumulative Roll Bonding

Advanced Manufacturing Process Accumulative Roll Bonding of Aluminium 2011 Table of Contents I. Introduction3 II. Roll Bonding4 II. 1. Surface Preparation4 II. 2. Bonding Mechanism5 II. 3. Roll Bonded Materials and Applications6 III. Accumulative Roll Bonding7 III. 1. Introduction to Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) Processes7 III. 2. Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) Process8 III. 3. Accumulative Roll Bonded Materials10 III. 4. Material Structure after Accumulative Roll Bonding11 III. 5. Mechanical Properties after Accumulative Roll Bonding13 III. 5. 1. Strength and ductility13 III. 5. 2. Hardness15 III. 6.

Applications of Accumulative Roll Bonding Process16 III. 6. 1. Manufacturing of a Cu/Al2O3 composite16 III. 6. 2. Manufacturing of nanostructure Al/SiCp Composite17 IV. Conclusion18 References19 I. Introduction Research in severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes has increased a great deal over the last ten to fifteen years. Accumulative roll bonding is a radical, new (1998) process with limitless capabilities. Rolling is a process which has been used for a long time in almost all the steel mills around the world. The purpose of roll bonding is to combine two materials through rolling in order to achieve the desired mechanical properties.

This report intends to explore the evolution of the mechanical properties such as ductility, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and hardness through grain refinement at the microstructural level. The mechanism of surface deformation, grain boundary deformation and reduction of work hardening is further analysed. This report also makes an effort to understand the accumulative roll bonding process as applied to aluminium and its alloys. II. Roll Bonding Roll bonding or also called roll welding is a cold welding process which is performed by the application of pressure on long pieces / strips through a pair of rolls.

The process can be performed by application of heat or otherwise (Kalkpakjian et al. 2009, p760). To perform roll bonding, the material should satisfy certain characteristics which are ductility and crystallographic structures. Firstly, in roll bonding, at least one or both of the materials should have superior ductile properties (Kalpakjian et al. 2011, pp819-820). The reason for this is that if the material is not ductile, the failure would occur at a sooner stage of the plastic deformation and therefore, the bonding would not occur.

Secondly, with respect to crystallographic structures, for the roll bonding of two different materials, the difference in the atomic radius should be less than 15% and the two metals should have the same crystal structures (Kalpakjian et al. 2011, p124). Figure 1. roll bonding principle (Li et al. 2008, p2) II. 1. Surface Preparation Before roll bonding, the work surfaces should be prepared. This is performed by degreasing, wire brushing and wiping in order to remove oxide layer (Kalpakjian et al. 2011, p820). In addition, it is also done by other chemical and mechanical treatment (Danesh et al. 008, p2003). Indeed, it is really important to remove this oxide smudge firstly to avoid any corrosion problem which would occur during the part’s lifetime and secondly, to increase the bond strength between the two materials (Movahedi et al. 2007, p417). II. 2. Bonding Mechanism More specifically, in roll bonding, the establishment of the atomic bond happens between decontaminated areas. During the rolling operation, the surface layers which are in contact with each other break-up and the underlying layers of the components extrude through the cracked layers.

The bond strength between the two materials is dictated by parameters such as material thickness, surface preparation method, surface roughness, time taken between surface preparation and rolling, rolling temperature, reduction of thickness during rolling, rate of deformation and heat treatment after bonding (Movahedi et al. 2007, pp417-418). The geometry of the deformation zone, the bonding length and the mean contact pressure also play a big factor (Danesh et al. 2008, p2003). Many authors have developed theoretical models in order to predict the weld efficiency.

Basically, the method consists to estimate the effective load-bearing area of peel test specimens. The theoretical models are as follows: Model of Vaidyanath et al. : ? = SwSm=Rf(2-Rf) Where, Sw is the strength of the weld, Sm the strength of base metal and Rf is the final reduction at the end of the rolling pass (Vaidyanath et al. cited in Madaah-Hosseini 2001, p186). Model of Wrigth et al. : ? = SwSm=H1-1-Rf21-Rt2 Where, H is an empirical hardening factor, Rf is the final reduction at the end of the rolling pass and Rt is the reduction at threshold deformation (Wright et al. ited in Madaah-Hosseini 2001, p186). II. 3. Roll Bonded Materials and Applications Some of the common materials that are used for roll bonding are cupronickel (Cu-Ni) which is used for example in manufacturing the United States quarter cents (Kalpakjian et al. 2011, p820), Copper/Aluminium, Aluminium/Steel, Copper/Copper, Copper/Iron, Copper/Silver, Zinc/Zinc, Aluminium/Aluminium, Lead/Lead, Tin/Tin. The figure below shows the different materials commonly used in roll bonding. In addition, this figure represents the bond strength as function of the deformation reduction (Li et al. 2008, p3). Figure 2. ond strength as function of the deformation reduction (Cold roll bonding process) (Li et al. 2008, p3) Some of the common applications of the different metal composites produced by roll bonding are for example: * Cooking utensils, roof and wall plate, heat exchangers, special engraving plates and electrical components produced in Al/Cu, * Cookware, roast and bowl for induction heater produced in Al/Cu/Fe, * Reflectors in electric heaters, automobile silencers produced in Al/Fe, * Automotive trims produced in Al/Stainless steel, * Automotive exhaust systems produced in Al/Steel/Al, Electrical components produced in Ag/Cu, * Bullet jacket produced in Cu/Fe, * Commutator plate, armature winding wire, cooking utensils produced in Cu/Stainless steel, * Communication cable shields buried in acidic soil produced in Cu/Stainless steel/Cu, * Battery cap produced in Ni/Stainless steel/Cu, * Bipolar electrode in fuel cell produced in Ti/Stainless steel/Ni, * Coin produce in Ag/Cu/Ag or Ni/Cu/Ni, * Printing plate for high-speed wrap-around press produced in Al/Zn (Li et al. 2008, p9). III. Accumulative Roll Bonding III. 1. Introduction to Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) Processes

Materials with Ultra Fine Grain structure, i. e lesser than 1 micrometer, are supposed to have superior mechanical properties. Such bulky materials are fabricated in a process called as Severe Plastic Deformation. Plastic strain over 4 is applied to the material so that ultra fine grain structure is formed in heavily deformed areas (Tsuji et al. 2003, p338). Some of the successful SPD processes along with accumulative roll bonding are Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) and High Pressure Torsion (HPT). In ECAE, the shear deformation is achieved by applying force on the material which is placed in an angular die.

The ECAE process can be further classified as continuous and batch ECAE process. In the HPT process circular or disc shaped components can be deformed by application of high pressure through torsion. This process is limited to small and thin components (Tsuji et al. 2003, p339). Some other SPD processes include Cyclic Extrusion Compression, Continuous Cyclic Bending and Repetitive Corrugation and Straightening. The CEC process involves both extrusion and compression, where the earlier is used for decrease the diameter of the components and the latter is used for increasing the diameter of the same.

This is carried out repetitively to achieve the Ultra fine grains. The CCB process involves bending the component repetitively in both directions to develop high strain in the material. The RCS process is still in development and is mostly similar to the CCB process. The difference being the strain per pass, which is higher in the RCS process, which is attained by reducing the corner radii of die and tools (Tsuji et al. 2003, pp339-340). III. 2. Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) Process ARB is the only SPD process which involves rolling for deformation, as it is the most feasible way for continuous production.

This process was invented by Saito et al. in 1998 to achieve UFG in metallic materials by sever plastic deformation. Figure 3. Schematic illustration showing the principle of the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process (Tsuji et al. 2003 p340) In an ARB process, the two materials of equal size are surface treated and then stacked upon each other. Then it is subjected to bonding by the rolling process, and the thickness of the material is almost constant. The process is repeated to increase the strain across the surface of the material and thereby achieve UFG.

Very much like the roll bonding, the surfaces of the materials are wire brushed and degreased below the re-crystallisation temperature for oxidation and to increase the bonding between the materials. The table below shows the relation between layers, cycles, bonded boundaries, interval, reduction and equivalent strain. For instance consider a material of 4 layers; this would need to go through 2 cycles and it would have 3 bonded boundaries when stacked upon each other. The interval or the gap between the layers would be 250 micro meter. The thickness is reduced by 75% and the equivalent strain is 1. . According to the studies conducted by Tsuji et al, bonding is not difficult to achieve in ARB. For materials like low carbon steel, bonding can be achieved even at room temperatures; however the surface treatment is very important. Usually the critical reduction is dependent on the materials, but it is necessary to achieve more than 35% in the first pass as it makes the roll force large when compared to conventional rolling. As rolling is not a hydrostatic process high amount of stress is accumulated on the edges, which result in the formation of the cracks.

It has been found that cracks occur at higher cycles. This leads to frequent failure which is the main limitation of the ARB process. However by following certain simple processes cracking can be avoided. According to Tsuji et al, pure aluminium and iron having dimensions of 1X50X300 can be fabricated with simple infrastructure and most importantly cracking can be avoided (Tsuji et al. 2003, pp340-341). III. 3. Accumulative Roll Bonded Materials ARB can be largely applied to most of the ductile materials and their alloys. The table below illustrates some of the materials used in Accumulative roll bonding.

The ARB process applied to different materials can be illustrated from the data available in the above table. For further understanding, let us take the instance of 100-Al (99% Aluminium). After 8 accumulative roll bonding cycles performed at room temperature, the microstructure of aluminium changes to pancake UFG. In addition, the grain size also changes to 0. 21? m and the tensile strength increases from 80 MPa (Aalco 2011) to 310 MPa. Similarly, when ARB is applied to 5083-Al (Al-405Mg+0. 57Mn), after 7 cycles performed at 100°C, the microstructure changes to ultrafine lamellae, the grain size changes to 0. 8? m and the tensile strength increases from 300 MPa (Aalco 2011) to 530MPa. Based on the table and mechanical properties of these materials before accumulative roll bonding, it can be easily see that accumulative roll bonding refines the grain to ultra fine and most crucially enhances the strength of the material (Tsuji et al. 2003, p342). III. 4. Material Structure after Accumulative Roll Bonding It has been seen in the previous part of the report that the grain is refined after accumulative roll bonding. It can be further justified with the study conducted by Elseaidy et al. and Pirgazi et al..

Pirgazi et al. ‘s study of accumulative roll bonding when performed on AA1100 shows the change of grain size at different stages of the ARB process. The figure below illustrates this evolution. Figure 4. Evolution of the grain size After ARB (Pirgazi et al. 2008, p2845) Figure 5. Evolution of aspect ration and subgrain size after ARB (pirgazi et al. 2008 p2845) It can be seen from the figure 4 that the length of the grain changes from just over 3? m after two cycles to just over 1? m after ten cycles. Similarly, the thickness decreases steadily from just over 1? m at two cycles to approximately 0. ? m at ten cycles. The grain size changes drastically from 3 ? m at two cycles to approximately 0. 7? m after ten cycles (Pirgazi et al. 2008, p2845). The major dimension out of the minor dimension is described as the aspect ratio. It can be seen from the figure 5 that the aspect ratio decreases from 0. 35? m at two cycles to just over 0. 2? m after five cycles. Then, there is a sharp increase to 0. 4? m at eight cycles and it increases further to 0. 44? m at ten cycles. In addition, sub-grain is part of the grain that is slightly disoriented from other part of the grain.

It has been found that the higher density of sub-grain increases the yield stress of the material. Sub-grain size decreases linearly from 0. 6? m at two cycles to 0. 4? m at six cycles and then steadies at 0. 35? m at ten cycles (Pirgazi et al. 2008, p2845). Elseaidy et al. ‘s study of accumulative roll bonding when performed on AA6061 shows the change of grain size at different stages of the ARB process. AA6061 contains aluminium, magnesium and silicon in higher percentages. It also has other alloying elements like copper, chromium, iron, tin and zinc in lower proportions.

The figure below illustrates the evolution of the grain size of AA6061 after accumulative roll bonding. Figure 6. SEM micrographs of the AA6061 ARB specimen after a) two, b) four, c) six, d) eight cycles in the rolling direction (Elseaidy 2007, p5) When AA6061 was observed under the scanning electron microscope, it can be seen that the microstructure of the ARB processed material at one cycle has larger grain in the direction of rolling with clear grain boundaries. The figure 6 illustrates the change of grain size from 45? m before accumulative roll bonding to 3? after eight ARB cycles (Elseaidy et al. 2007, p3). Hence, it can be concluded that the accumulative roll bonding process has an effect of grain refinement after each cycle. As per Hall Petch formula ? y=? 0+kyD where, ? y is the yield stress, ? 0 is a material constant for the starting stress of dislocation moment, ky is strengthening coefficient and D is the grain diameter. Thus, it is evident from this formula that the yield stress increases when the grain size decreases. III. 5. Mechanical Properties after Accumulative Roll Bonding III. 5. . Strength and ductility Figure 7. Tensile properties of the AA6061 ARB processed sheets at 500°C (Elseaidy 2007, p7) As per Elseaidy et al. , the ARB process of the AA6061 was performed at 500°C. It can be seen from the figure 7 that mechanical properties such as ultimate strength, yield strength and total elongation change with respect to the number of ARB cycles. More specifically, the yield strength of the material increases from around 60MPa to 120MPa after one ARB cycle. It continues to increase gradually till 250MPa after eight cycles.

Similarly, the ultimate tensile strength increases from 110MPa to 130 MPa after one cycle of ARB and continues to do so to just over 250 MPa after eight cycles. The most important aspect to observe in this graph is that the difference between ultimate tensile strength and the yield strength is very small after 8 cycles. Therefore, It can also be seen that there is a decrease in the work hardening area. In addition, the total elongation decreases sharply from 30% to 10% and increases steady to about 14% after eight cycles (2007, p7). Figure 8.

Tensile properties of the AA1100 ARB processed sheets at 500°C (Elseaidy 2007, p8) A similar change in ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and total elongation can be observed at various cycles of ARB process when performed on AA1100 at 500°C as shown on the figure 8 (Elseaidy et al. 2007, p8). From the earlier conclusions, it was learnt that with increasing the number of ARB cycles, the grain size decreases, and with decreasing the grain size, strength increases. III. 5. 2. Hardness Figure 9. Evolution of the Vickers hardness in ARB process (Hoppel et al. 2004, p220)

Based on the study of Hoppel et al. it can be observed on the figure 9 that the Vickers hardness increases very drastically from 20HV to 55HV after just one cycle but the rest of the cycle fail to show measurable increase in Vickers hardness and the value settles at 60HV after eight ARB cycles. From this graph, it can be concluded that with decreasing grain size, the hardness increases (2004, p220). To conclude, it is observed that the accumulative roll bonding process applied on AA1100 and AA6061 enhances mechanical properties such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and hardness.

It can also be seen that the ductility decreases with increasing ARB cycles. III. 6. Applications of Accumulative Roll Bonding Process (c) Figure [ 10 ]. Evolution of tensile strength, elongation and hardness of copper and copper/alumina in ARB process (toroghinejad 2010 pp7433-7434) III. 6. 1. Manufacturing of a Cu/Al2O3 composite Toroghinejad et al. studied on the application of the accumulative roll bonding process to Cu/Al2O3. Copper is widely known for its high thermal and electrical conductivity. However, its mechanical properties are very inferior.

For applications such as resistant welding electrodes, lead frames, accelerators and electrical connectors, it is imperative that the material has both high conductivity and high strength. This can be achieved by metal matrix composite of Cu-Al2O3. As copper already has good conductivity, there would be a need to increase the mechanical properties of the metal matrix composite (2010, p7430). Perhaps, ARB is the best process to achieve this. The figure 10 (a) shows the difference in increase of the tensile strength between plain copper and copper/alumina composite.

It is evident that the composite displays a higher tensile strength after each cycle when compared to plain copper. The figure 10 (b) illustrates interestingly the evolution of elongation of plain copper and copper/alumina. More specifically, the elongation displayed by plain copper after nine cycles is over 6% whereas the elongation of a copper/alumina composite decreases from 1. 6% at one cycle to just over 1% after five cycles and increases to slightly under 5% at nine stages. The figure 10 (c) shows the increase of hardness over different accumulative roll bonding cycles of copper/alumina when compared to plain copper.

Both this material start off with a hardness value of 50HV. there is a dramatic increase in hardness after just one cycle to over 120 HV in both the materials. It can be seen on further cycles that the hardness value of copper/alumina increases further to just below 160 HV and 160 HV at the end of seven and nine cycles respectively. But the hardness value in copper does not increase significantly and settles to a value of just over 130 HV at the end of nine cycles (Toroghinejad et al. 2010, pp7433-7434).

Toroghinejad et al have concluded in their study that the ARB process when applied to copper/alumina composite can give high strength, due to its finely dispersed grain. They also found out that there was an homogeneous distribution and strong bonding between the particles and the matrix without any porosity. Furthermore, Cu-Al composite attained a higher tensile strength and higher hardness than annealed and ARBed copper (2010, pp7434-7435). III. 6. 2. Manufacturing of nanostructure Al/SiCp Composite

Alizadeh and Paydar conducted a study on the application of the accumulative roll bonding process on AA1050 aluminium strips along with silicon carbide in a powdery form. They found out that the ultra fine grain of the aluminium carbide composite improve significantly. Likewise, the tensile strength increased by over four times by the end of the eight cycles. A commonality was found with other material in terms of dramatic variation in hardness and strength after one cycle (2010, p235). The fabrication process used by Alizadeh and Paydar to produce the Al/SiCp composite is shown on the figure below.

Figure 11. Fabrication process used to produce Al/SiCp composite (a) first step, (b) second step(Alizadeh et al. 2010, p232) IV. Conclusion The Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) process as applied to aluminium and its alloys have been discussed in length throughout this report. Rolling is the most feasible process in the production of bulk materials till date. there is enough scope to apply the accumulative roll bonding process to widely used materials like steel. heat treatment has become a quintessential part of the manufacturing process in the current scene, especially where high strengths are required.

The side effects of heat treatment has been well documented; namely residual stresses, deformation, which hampers the accuracy of the manufactured parts. It has been shown that ARB process has a grain refinement effect on the material and therefore increases strength and changes ductility. By using this process, it is potentially possible to completely get rid of the heat treatment processes. It is possible to obtain high mechanical properties materials without adding special alloying elements or performing complex thermomechanical treatments. This process can therefore contribute to satisfy the demand in energy saving.

Unfortunately, the application of the ARB process has not trickled down to the production floors of metal manufacturing units. The quality of the products can be improved by multiple folds in the future upon the application of the ARB to other metals. References Aalco 2011, Aluminium – Specifications, Properties, Classifications and Classes, Supplier Data by Aalco, accessed 14/05/2011, http://www. azom. com/article. aspx? ArticleID=2863 Alizadeh, M ; Paydar, M 2010, ‘Fabrication of nanostructure Al/SiCP composite by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process’, JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp231-235 Danesh Manesh, H, Eizadjou, M, Janghorban, K, Shakur Shahabi, H ; Kazemi Talachi, A 2008, ‘Investigation of structure and mechanical properties of multi-layered Al/Cu composite produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process’, Composites Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 9, pp2003-2009 Elseaidy, I M, Ibrahim, M M, Ghoneim, M M ; Abd El-Azim, M E 2007, ‘Aluminium Alloys Strengthening by Accumulative Roll-Bonding (ARB) Process’, Transactions, vol. 9, pp1-10 Hoppel, H W, Goken, M ; May, J 2004, ‘Enhanced Strength and Ductility in Ultrafine-Grained Aluminium Produced by Accumulative Roll Bonding’, Advanced Engineering Materials, vol. 6, no. 4, pp219-222 Kalpakjian, S ; Schmid, S R 2009, Manufacturing processes for engineering materials, Dorling Kindersley, India Kalpakjian, S ; Schmid, S R 2011, Manufacturing engineering and technology, Dorling Kindersley, India Li, L, Nagai, K ; Yin, F 2008, ‘Progress in cold roll bonding of metals’, Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. , no. 2, pp1-11 Madaah-hosseini, H ; Kokabi, A 2002, ‘Cold roll bonding of 5754-aluminum strips’, Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 335, no. 1-2, pp186-190 Movahedi, M, Kokabi, A H ; Madaah-Hosseini, H R 2007, ‘The influence of roll bonding parameters on the bond strength of Al-3003/Zn soldering sheets’, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 487, no. 1-2, pp417-423 Pirgazi, H ; Akbarzadeh, A, 2008, ‘Characterization of nanostructured aluminum sheets processed by accumulative roll bonding’, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS B, vol. 2, no. 18-19, pp2840-2847 Toroghinejad, M R ; Jamaati, R 2010, ‘Application of ARB process for manufacturing high-strength, finely dispersed and highly uniform Cu/Al2O3 composite’, Materials Science ; Engineering A, vol. 527, no. 27-28, pp7430 Tsuji, N, Saito, Y, Lee, S ; Minamino, Y 2003, ‘ARB (Accumulative Roll-Bonding) and other new Techniques to Produce Bulk Ultrafine Grained Materials’, Advanced Engineering Materials, vol. 5, no. 5, pp338-344