These are used for the relief of common aches and pains such as headache, toothache, period pains, fever and symptoms associated with cold and influenza, muscular and joint pains. These medicines are considered over-the-counter medicines and available without the need for a prescription. The side effects of these medicines include rashes, low blood pressure,liver and kidney damage (if used excessively or overdosed), sometimes liver damage can be fatal. Antibiotics. These medications are normally prescribed by a GP or a Health Care professional.
They are used for the relief of infections which would not clear up without their use, such as severe acne, STD s, kidney/urinary infections, pneumonia. The side effects of these medicines can be nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, bloating, indigestion, abdominal pain and loss of appetite. 2. 2 Identify medication which demands the measurement of physiological measurements. Insulin-This medicine regulates the levels of sugar in a person who is unable to produce insulin,which is the bodies way of absorbing sugar naturally.
This medicines requires regular monitoring, depending on the intake of sugar by the diabetic person reliant of this medication. Blood sugar levels are taken at specific times of the day (usually when or before food is consumed) and kept within a safe level to prevent low or high blood sugars. The amount of insulin needed is adjusted accordingly. The effects of too much or too little sugar in the blood can result in coma,brain damage, heart attack,stroke, kidney failure and foot ulcers . 2. 3 Describe the common adverse reactions to medication, how each can be recognised and the appropriate action(s) required.
Serious sidde effects can differ from person to person. Allergic reaction can be mild in the form of rashes or itching to more serious Anaphylactic shock requiring emergency treatment and the use of an adrenalin injection. Symptoms of Anaphylaxis can start with the mild symptoms but rapidly progress into swelling of the lips, eyes and throat, shortness of breath leading to respiratory distress, heart attack/problems and ultimately death. If a persons face starts to swell after medicines have been administered then urgent medical attention is advised.
Certain drugs when used in conjuntion with other drugs can cause serious side effects. Always read the leaflet when taking new medication, this gives information on `contraindications` and advise on what to avoid such as alcohol and in some medications certain fruit juices can cause an adverse reaction! 2. 4 Explain the different routes of medicine administration. A, ORAL-Taken by mouth. This medicine type is swallowed and can be tablet,capsule or liquid form. B, SUBLINGUAL- This is taken under the tongue or to dissolve in the mouth and can be tablet or spray.
C, INHALATION-This medicine is ‘breathed’ in to reach the lung/respiritory system. D, TOPICAL-This type is applied to an area to be treated in the form of cream, ointment or gel. Usually applied onto skin but can also be appled to eyes,ears, nose and mouth. E, TRANSDERMAL-This is medicine applied to the skin for absorbtion into the circulation usually in the form of an adhesive patch. F, INSTILLATION-This is administered as drops usually liquid to eyes,nose and ears. G, INJECTION-This is normally administered by a trained practitioner with a needle and a syringe directly into the body or vein.
H, INTERNAL-This medication is administered either vaginally or anally. 3. 1 Explain the types, purpose and function of materials and equipment needed for the administration of medication via the different routes. Please see A-H above for reference. A, In order to administer this medicine type a spoon,syringe or a measurable medicine potare required. these are used to contain and /or measure the medication for transfer into the mouth. B, When administrating this medication it requires the same as above but in addition sprays are squirted directly from the cannister into the mouth.
C, This medication is administered from a pressurised cannister or aerosole and a spacer /tube pointed into the mouth so that a mist or vapour can form and be inhaled directly into the lungs. D, This medication is applied by hand or applicator directly onto the affected area and is supplied in a squeezable tube or pump dispenser. E, This medication is is usually a medicated patch adhered to the skin like a plaster. This is so the medicine can be absorbed gradually into the bloodstream. F, This medication is supplied in a bottle or tube with a dropper or a small nozzle for squeezing into the appropriate orifice.
G, This medicine uses a needle and syringe and the correct dose is drawn into the syringe and inserted into the body dependent on what the medication is for it can be inserted under the skin, into a muscle or vein, or directly into a joint. H, This medication is inserted into the appropriate orifice and can be applied by hand or with a pre-filled applicator dependent on if the medication is suppository, pessary, cream or ointment. 3. 2 Identify the rquired information from prescription/medication administration charts. Prescriptions- Must contain:- Name, Address, Date of birth,dose,route and frequency.
When to take the medication ie before or after food,contraindications ie may cause drowsiness, do not operate machinery… The GP s signature and practice address. Monitored Dosage Systems- This is a medication storage device. Usually containing seven days supply of tablets and/or liquids in sealed despensing pots of the correct dose. They are printed with date, time (sometimes colour coded), name of person the medicine is for. This is supplied and must be filled by a pharmacist. A MAR Chart is an individuals record of medication they are currently taking.
The MAR Chart has the name, strength,dose,frequency and any additional information required for a specific medication. Anyone administering medication to a person unable to self-medicate must record that they have given this medication. 5. 3 Describe how to report any immediate problems with administration. If you are unsure of administering any medication speak to your line manager or seek GP s direct advise. If a problem/error is noticed in the administration of a persons medication again seek advise from a GP or an appropriate health care professional, such as NHS Direct. Record and report to your line manager.
Problems/errors can be medication refusal,contamination,human error. All errors must be recorded on the individuals MAR Chart and Daily Support Diary. Also at Handover if nessecery to provide continuity of care and for staff to be aware of any adverse effects. 5. 7 Medication may be disposed of for a variety of reasons such as contamination,change in medication/discontinuation, passed its expiry date, or the death of any individual. When any of the above happens all surplus medicines must be returned to the Pharmacy. Stored in the appropriate mannner and recorded in the Returned Medications Log book.