Body Composition Measurement

INTRODUCTION OF BODY COMPOSITION

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The construction of human organic structure composing is studied at assorted different degrees. It has five degrees which are related to each other. It consists of atomic degree, molecular degree, tissue degree, cellular and whole organic structure degree. It is important for persons and groups to hold cognition of one’s ain organic structure composing as it indicates physical fittingness, growing and development, nutritionary position, effectivity of intercession, H2O homeostasis and disease hazard.

Body composing measuring methods are farther classified into direct method, indirect method and double indirect method. Under direct method it comprises ofin vivoneutron activation analysis and analysis of carcase. Whereas indirect method includes densitometry, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry ( DXA ) , dilution techniques, entire organic structure K, multi-compartment methods, Computerized Topography ( CT scans ) , Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI ) . On the other manus, double indirect method comprises anthropometry, skinfold thickness measurings, ultrasound, entire organic structure electrical conduction, bioelectrical electric resistance ( BIA ) and N-methyl-histidine and creatinine elimination. Different organic structure composing measurings are used in different type of population. It is affected by the cost ; instrument available, invasiveness, radiation danger, application aims every bit good as truth required. ( Deurenberg, 2009 )

BODY COMPOSITION MEASUREMENT IN MORBIDLY OBESE

With an addition in visual aspect of sudden events of fleshiness in United States and other developed states, the presence of diseases which are associated with fleshiness such type 2 diabetes has besides increased. Therefore, it has become of import to handle fleshiness and diseases associated with it. Most familiar type of measurings which are practiced is anthropometric measurings consisting of skinfold thickness, weight, stature, and abdominal perimeter, whereas, complex techniques includes double X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical electric resistance, densitometry. ( Duren et al. , 2008 )

( a )BOD POD ( Air Displacement Plethysmography ) V. Under Water Weighing ( UWW )

In a survey 123 topics participated out of which 34 were adult females and 89 were work forces which included 10 terrible corpulent topics ( BMI ? 40 kg/ma‚‚ ) , 70 topics were corpulent ( 30 ? BMI ? 40 kg/m2 ) and 15 of them were overweight ( 25 ? BMI ? 30 kg/m2 ) . With the aid of BOD POD and Under Water Weighing techniques organic structure denseness was assessed in these topics. As an result a high correlativity in organic structure denseness was assessed by BOD POD and UWW and was noted. ( Ginde et al. , 2005 )

Although UWW technique is able to house big topics supplying their organic structure denseness estimations. However, the engagement of topics is reduced as some participants with terrible fleshiness are non capable of collaborating sufficiently with a breath clasp, maximum halitus and H2O submergence, the topics are fearful that something unpleasant could go on and therefore it makes it less practical in research and clinical countries. Whereas it is non the same for BOD POD because comfort of the participant is linked non merely to their weight but to their physical size as good. Thus it supports the cogency of BOD POD in measuring organic structure denseness in corpulence and terrible corpulent topics as it is a more practical and convenient technique used in appraisal of organic structure composing. ( Ginde et al. , 2005 )

In another survey of 68 participants who varied in ethnicity, age, gender and blubber suggested that coefficients of fluctuation for measuring of per centum of fat by Hydrodensitometry ( HW ) and Air displacement plethysmograph ( ADP ) were non significantly different. The per centum of fat by ADP was extremely related with per centum of fat by HW ( r=0.96 ) and the average difference between the methods was ( -0.3±0.2 ) % FAT. These findings indicate that ADP is valid and greatly dependable technique for determining per centum of fat in persons compared to the HW technique. ADP has certain benefits over HW that it is simple to run, fast and has the capableness to house persons like elderly, corpulent and handicapped. ( McCrory et al. , 1995 )

It has been reported in some other surveies as good that BOD POD is better than HW. In another survey it has been suggested that UWW works on many same premise as BOD POD. BOD POD has some advantages over it such as the participant is non required to keep breath underwater. ( Duren et al. , 2008 )

( B )Evaluation of other assessment methods

Among other organic structure composing measurings BIA is simple to run, portable and improves truth of foretelling TBW and FFM compared to traditional anthropometric technique. ( Sai, 2005 ) But still BIA is non really capable of gauging blubber in adipose as they have important fractions of organic structure H2O and organic structure mass considered by the bole, increased ratio of extracellular and intracellular H2O and less sum of hydration in corpulent persons. ( Duren et al. , 2008 )

Corpulent persons are non suited for CT and MRI. CT scans are though used to measure intra – abdominal fat and can house large trunk size but presence of high radiation exposure is non appropriate for full organic structure appraisal. On the other manus MRI can be used for complete organic structure analysis in normal weight and rather heavy persons but it is non capable to house big trunk sizes. In order to supply for full organic structure measures of thin every bit good as fat tissue the two techniques stand in demand for extra clip and package. ( Duren et al. , 2008 )

Double X-ray absorptiometry is better accepted technique in order to measure gristle, fat and wasted tissue. Although for the operator and capable it is accessible and speedy. ( Sai, 2005 ) The main restriction is that bulk of the persons with monolithic organic structure size including grownups and kids are frequently wide and excessively weighty to get DXA scan for full organic structure. ( Duren et al. , 2008 ) Furthermore in some surveies it has been indicated that DXA method may non be suited for whole organic structure appraisal in corpulent work forces and adult females because of thickness of the tissue. ( LaForgia et al. , 2009 )

Skinfold method is an appropriate technique used to see the difference in sum of blubber in kids because of their little physical size. But it is non suited for corpulent topics. ( Sai, 2005 ) The cardinal disadvantage of this technique is that bulk of the skinfold calliper devices have an upper measuring bound of 45 -55 mm which bounds its pertinence in the persons who are thin and little heavy. Though some of the skinfold calliper devices are able to obtain big measurings but because of the midst and big skinfold it makes it is difficult to draw and clamp the skinfold while analyzing the reading on the caliper dial. ( Duren et al. , 2008 )

Decision

Therefore, the writer is of the position that BOD POD is the most suited method for measuring persons who are morbidly corpulent as it accommodated topics with big physical size without acquiring moisture, easy to run, the measurement period is short. Meanwhile, admiting it is good suited for particular population such as corpulent, aged and handicapped. Its features make it applicable in clinical and research scenes. Whereas, it is hard to measure organic structure composing in corpulent persons through traditional organic structure composing measuring techniques such as DXA, BIA, Skinfold, CT scans and MRI because of topics big organic structure construction. In order to steer, look into and bring around topics who are enduring from the effects and presence of other diseases related with fleshiness the debut to progress and better organic structure composing assessment methods should be promoted.

BODY COMPOSITION MEASUREMENT IN CHILDREN

It is of import to measure appraisal of organic structure design in young person, non merely for current wellness position and nutrition but besides for increasing incidence of childhood fleshiness. However, due to multiple alterations in organic structure composing in young person it has become tough to construe organic structure composing in kids. ( Sopher et al. , 2004 ) As an result, the importance in enlargement of other reliable and reliable techniques should lift in order to measure organic structure composing in kids in clinical every bit good as field usage. ( Parker et al. , 2003 )

In a survey of 54 topics which included both the genders who were aged between 10-18 old ages, organic structure denseness was calculated by ADP technique which was compared to personify denseness of HW. It indicated that the values of both the organic structure denseness was converted per centum organic structure fat ( BF ) by utilizing two compartment theoretical account transition expressions. It was so compared to % BF determined by DXA. The per centum organic structure fat from BOD POD was greatly correlated while the mean 2.9 % BF was lower than per centum organic structure fat DXA. Whereas mean per centum organic structure fat from HW was non significantly distinguishable from per centum organic structure fat DXA. Besides, organic structure denseness ( Db ) of BOD POD was bigger than organic structure denseness of HW. Therefore HW as a mention method is non good, it associated with obstruction in under H2O deliberation and finding of lung volume residuary. DXA is a better mention method it depends upon limited engagement in the process and does non affect any premise about FFM. BOD POD has the capableness to get the better of these complications. The strong correlativity between % BOD POD and DXA suggests use of BOD POD for measuring organic structure composing in kids. ( Lockner et al. , 2000 )

Similarly, in another survey in kids it suggested that ADP is a better method for measuring organic structure composing in kids. Body composing estimations can be attained in paediatric population without acquiring submerged in H2O such as in UWW and without any exposure to radiations such as in DXA, It reported the cogency of BOD POD in mensurating organic structure denseness in kids. ( Nunez et al. , 1999 )

In a survey of kids aged between 9-14 old ages the writer evaluated BOD POD and 4C theoretical accounts. Its findings indicated that BOD POD is reliable and accurate method that can firmly and quickly find organic structure composing in different age groups even in whom it is sometimes difficult to measure organic structure composing such as in aged, corpulent every bit good as in kids. ( Field et al. , 2002 )

In another survey which includes 86 participants of both the genders in kids underwent Triceps skinfold thickness ( TSF ) , bioelectrical electric resistance analysis ( BIA ) and Double X-ray absorptiometry ( DXA ) in order to mensurate organic structure blubber at baseline. There was high correlativity of all the techniques with DXA ( P & lt ; 0.001 ) BIA exaggerated the per centum of organic structure fat and TSF considered merely 13 % discrepancy in per centum of organic structure fat. Whereas in ADP, there was no average bias found for determiners of % BF ( organic structure fat ) . These findings suggested that DXA seems to be easy and non-invasive technique to measure difference in adiposeness in kids. ADP could be utile in measuring per centum of organic structure fat in kids as it performed better in comparing to TSF and BIA. ( Eldberg et al. , 2004 )

Overall findings suggest that BOD POD is the most appropriate method in comparing to other techniques for measuring organic structure composing measurings in paediatric population.

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Mentions:

1 ) Das, S. ( 2005 ) . Body composing measuring in terrible fleshiness.Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 8 ( 6 ) , pp.602-606.

2 ) DEMPSTER, P. and AITKENS, S. ( 1995 ) . A new air supplanting method for the finding of human organic structure composing.Medicine & A ; Science in Sports & A ; Exercise, 27 ( 12 ) , pp.1692? ? ? 1697.

3 ) Duren, D. , Sherwood, R. , Czerwinski, S. , Lee, M. , Choh, A. , Siervogel, R. and Chumlea, W. ( 2008 ) . Body Composition Methods: Comparisons and Interpretation.Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 2 ( 6 ) , pp.1139-1146.

4 ) Elberg, J. , McDuffie, J. , Sebring, N. , Salaita, C. , Keil, M. , Robotham, D. , James C, J. and Yanovski, J. ( 2004 ) . Comparison of methods to measure alteration in childrenaˆ™s organic structure composition1,23.Am J Clin Nutr, ( 80 ( 1 ) , pp.64-69.

5 ) Field, D. , Goran, M. and McCrory, M. ( 2015 ) . BODY-COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT VIA AIR-DISPLACEMENT PLETHYSMOGRAPHY IN ADULTS AND CHILDREN: A REVIEW.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75, pp.453-467.

6 ) Ginde, S. , Geliebter, A. , Rubiano, F. , Silva, A. , Wang, J. , Heshka, S. and Heymsfield, S. ( 2005 ) . Air Displacement Plethysmography: Validation in Overweight and Corpulent Subjects.Obesity Research, 13 ( 7 ) , pp.1232-1237.

7 ) LaForgia, J. , Dollman, J. , Dale, M. , Withers, R. and Hill, A. ( 2009 ) . Validation of DXA Body Composition Estimates in Obese Men and Women.Fleshiness, 17 ( 4 ) , pp.821-826.

8 ) LOCKNER, D. , HEYWARD, V. , BAUMGARTNER, R. and JENKINS, K. ( 2000 ) . Comparison of Air-Displacement Plethysmography, Hydrodensitometry, and Dual X-ray Absorptiometry for Assessing Body Composition of Children 10 to 18 Old ages of Age.Annalss of the New York Academy of Sciences, 904 ( 1 ) , pp.72-78.

9 ) MCCRORY, M. , GOMEZ, T. , BERNAUER, E. and MOL? ? , P. ( 1995 ) . Evaluation of a new air supplanting plethysmograph for mensurating human organic structure composing.Medicine & A ; Science in Sports & A ; Exercise, 27 ( 12 ) , pp.1686? ? ? 1691.

10 ) NuAnez, C. , Kovera, A. , Pietrobelli, A. , Heshka, S. , Horlick, M. , Kehayias, J. , Wang, Z. and Heymsfield, S. ( 1999 ) . Body composing in kids and grownups by air supplanting plethysmography.Eur J Clin Nutr, 53 ( 5 ) , pp.382-387.

11 ) Parker, L. , Reilly, J. , Slater, C. , Wells, J. and Pitsiladis, Y. ( 2003 ) . Cogency of Six Field and Laboratory Methods for Measurement of Body Composition in Boys.Obesity Research, 11 ( 7 ) , pp.852-858.

12 ) Sopher, A. , Thornton, J. , Wang, J. , Pierson, R. , Heymsfield, S. and Horlick, M. ( 2004 ) . Measurement of Percentage of Body Fat in 411 Children and Adolescents: A Comparison of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry With a Four-Compartment Model.Pediatrics, 113 ( 5 ) , pp.1285-1290.

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