In 1915, during World War I, South Africa, being a member of the British Commonwealth and a former British settlement, occupied the German settlement of South-West Africa – SWA ( Namibia ) . On December 17, 1920 South Africa undertook disposal of South-West Africa under the footings of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations and a Class C Mandate understanding by the League Council. The Class C authorization that was supposed to be used for the least developed districts, gave South Africa full power of disposal and statute law over the district, but required that South Africa promote the stuff and moral good being and societal advancement of the people. Following the League ‘s super session by the United Nations in 1946, South Africa refused to give up its earlier authorization to be replaced by a United Nations Trusteeship understanding, necessitating closer international monitoring of the district ‘s disposal. Although the South African authorities wanted to integrate ‘South-West Africa ‘ into its district, it ne’er officially did so ; nevertheless it was administered as the de facto ‘fifth state ‘ , with the white minority holding representation in the whites-only Parliament of Pretoria.
During the sixtiess ( known as the African twelvemonth, were by 17 African Nations go independent ) , as the European powers granted independency to their settlements and trust districts in Africa, force per unit area mounted on South Africa to make so in Namibia, which use to be called South West Africa. On the dismissal ( 1966 ) by the International Court of Justice of a ailment brought by Ethiopia and Liberia against South Africa ‘s continued presence in the district, the U.N. General Assembly revoked South Africa ‘s authorization.
South West Africa was South Africa ‘s regional imperium since 1915. Pretoria imposed on SWA a barbarous system of colonial regulation, bearing some dramatic similarities to apartheid itself. Africans in SWA ( Namibia ) have to populate in unintegrated townships and parts. Rural militias, called “ Homelands “ were set up with the purpose of commanding Africans and maintaining them divided along linguistic communication and tribal lines. Many Namibians have been deprived of their land and cowss, and therefore forced onto the labour market, where they get occupations on white-owned farms and foreign excavation, fishing, industrial companies through a contract labour modeled on the South African system. Namibia ‘s extended mineral sedimentation ( diamonds, U, Zn, bull, wolfram, manganese, and others were exploited by South African, Britain, and The U.S. companies, with South African houses accounting for about half of the foreign investings [[ 1 ]] .
When the League of Nations was formed after the first World War, Germany had settlements in Africa particularly South West Africa, Cameroon, Togo land ( Togo ) , Tanganyika ( Tanzania ) , Rwanda and Burundi. The Alliess were the Americans, British, French and the Soviet Union against Germany, Italy, Turkey and Japan. In footings of the League of Nations ‘ authorization for South West Africa, the duty of the well-being and development of the autochthonal population was vested in the Administrator of South West Africa, moving as an agent of the South African authorities. It would besides be true to state that after taking over the disposal of South West Africa in 1915, the South African Government had small pick but to rely, on a big extent, to the bing and re-established tribal governments to govern big countries of the district.
Traditional governments were, nevertheless, encouraged to play an active and increasing n power of the heads ” . At a ulterior session of the Commission, Lord Lugard ( the British African Administrator ) had the undermentioned to state: “ It is besides a affair of felicitation that the system of regulating the assorted folks through tribal councils continues to turn out satisfactory and is being extended ” . They had neither the work force, the agencies, nor the installations to make otherwise in a state with a surface country of 824 269 square kilometer and a population denseness which, even now, is merely 1,5 individuals per square kilometer.
Robert von Lucius, the Southern African letter writer of the `Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung` , has pointed out that it is no hyperbole to state that the impression of ethnicity as a critical underpinning of public policy has been in pattern for longer in what is now known as Namibia, than in South Africa. The formal constitution of ethnically based “ fatherlands ” in South West Africa was therefore a logical extension of a system of authorities, which had long been in operation in the Territory.
In 1947 the National party appointed a commission to pull up a plan for the 1948 general elections. Its recommendations were published as a booklet in which apartheid was officially stated to be the party ‘s policy. Its chief points included the saving of white domination, separation of the races, and retribalization of the Africans. In May 1948 The National Party ( NP ) came to power led by The Afrikaner curate and journalist Daniel Francois Malan ( 1874-1959 ) and as consequence of that, animus was built between the Germans and the Afrikaners ( Boars ) [[ 2 ]] . He broke with James Hertzog and formed a “ purified ” National party therefore differences on the fundamental law developed in the white community, and former military mans formed the Torch Commando to oppose Malanism.
African reactions to Malan ‘s regulation were without case in point in the history of South Africa. Zulu Chief Albert Luthuli, a known centrist who was subsequently awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his protagonism of passive resistance, started talking publically of “ new methods of battle. ” The activists demanded “ direct action. ” Violence, in which black South Africans and Whites were killed and wounded, erupted in the chief industrial countries between 1948 and 1954. Within South Africa district, crises erupted in the colored, Indian, and white communities. Differences on the fundamental law developed in the white community, and former military mans formed the `Torch` Commando to oppose Malanism. Malan resigned as leader of the National party toward the terminal of 1954 and died on Feb. 7, 1959.
In 1959, the South African constabulary came to the colored location to travel the people further out of Windhoek so that White persons could settle in their topographic point. Then a dearly-won rebellion was launched, but it was a important twenty-four hours in the history of Namibia! It was the beginning of the long battle for independency that was eventually realized by the South West African Peoples Organisation ( SWAPO ) under its military wing – Peopless Liberation Army of Namibia ( PLAN ) .
Article 22 of The League of Covenant stated:
“ To those settlements and districts which as a effect of the late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which once govern them, and which are inhabited by peoples non yet able to stand by themselves under rule that the well-being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of civilisation, and that securities for the public presentation of these trust be embodied in this Covenant “ .
The district was placed under “ C ” Mandate, which permitted South Africa to administrate it as an built-in portion of the neighbouring Union of South Africa to administrate it as an built-in portion of the Union. Under the Mandate it was stated that South Africa could use to the Territory its ain Torahs, but that it shall advance to the uttermost and stuff, moral wellbeing every bit good as the societal advancement of the dwellers of the Territory.
The remainder of the universe had repeatedly rejected this defence of white domination and colonial domination in South Africa, and Namibia in peculiar. In the old ages after sign language of the Magna Charter ( the Great Charter of Freedoms ) , the rules of human rights and self-government were elaborated in a series of Declarations and Conventions, get downing with the Universal Declarations of Human Rights ( 1948 ) and go oning through the landmark Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples ( 1960 ) and subsequently the human rights compacts. All those instruments were ignored by South Africa, which had its ain impression of what the “ sacred trust ” meant [[ 3 ]] . While the International Court of Justice was coping with legal facets, the human calamity elaborated over the old ages by many Namibians who appeared before the United Nations ( UN ) bodies – the Particular Committee on South West Africa, the Special Committee of 24 on decolonisation, the Assembly ‘s Fourth Committee ( which deals with colonial affairs ) , and particular human rights panels. Over, South West Africa protest, the General Assembly decided that such suppliants must be heard. – therefore obtained volumes of grounds on conditions in SWA, every bit good as entreaties for action to stop the unfairnesss of the apartheid South African government. Refusing to acknowledge United Nations authorization sing the Territory, South Africa kept South West Africa out of the United Nations Trustee system. After several efforts to decide this difference through the International Court of Justice, the UN general Assembly, terminated South Africa ‘s Mandate over South West Africa in October 1966 ( Res.2145 [ xxi ] ) .
In March 1969, the UN Security Council declared South Africa ‘s business in Namibia illegal and demanded that South Africa withdraw from Namibia instantly under the Resolution 264. In 1971 the United Nations came to the same decision, because Pretoria had systematically refused to follow with these demands. After some clip, it had created the UN Council for Namibia, a organic structure dwelling of 31 member states, as the legal Administering Authority for Namibia until independency [[ 4 ]] . The United Nations as a whole, through its General Assembly and Security Council, had been involved in its diplomatic attempts to procure Namibia ‘s independency. In 1974, the Council for Namibia adopted Degree No. 1 for the Protection of the National resources of Namibia. This makes it illegal for any foreign company or entity to work Namibia ‘s resources while the district is under illegal business. The UN Council for Namibia has carried out many activities such as assisting Namibians in the Zambian Capital Lusaka, and advancing a `National Programme` for Namibia to develop accomplishments and expertness every bit good as to be after for the economic hereafter of an independent State.
As the Maputo Frontline States Summit in Mozambique during March 1982 agreed that, the lone manner frontward for the people of our part is to back up the African National Congress ( ANC ) under their military wing Umkhonto we Sizwe 1961-1994 ( or MK ) , translated “ Spear of the State, ” and South West Africa People ‘s Organization ( SWAPO ) military wing [[ 5 ]] .This was called the Peoples Liberation Army of Namibia 1966-1989 ( Plan ) in their common battle against against the apartheid government in Pretoria and repurles the odiousness of this government against independent Africa [[ 6 ]] .
First to talk at the United Nations on behalf of the Namibian people was a South African reverend, Reverend Michael Scott. After the Fourth Committee voted to allow him a hearing in November 1949, Reverend Scott read many statements from traditional leaders and persons to exemplify his contentions that prejudiced Torahs and patterns had reduced the Africans of the Territory to a status of servitude. He urged that the land should be returned to the people that the Territory should be brought under the Trusteeship System, and that the United Nation ( UN ) should oppose South Africa ‘s efforts of appropriation.
The Homeland policy in South West Africa
After the 1948 National Party election triumph and the formal execution of apartheid in South Africa, the South African authorities viewed the creative activity of ‘self-governing ‘ provinces based on the boundaries of the major cultural groups – both within the boundary lines of South Africa and in South West Africa – as a agency of carry throughing the political aspirations of the autochthonal population. In the 1950s, the apartheid government headed by Hendrik Verwoerd, who was widely touted as the Father of apartheid [[ 7 ]] .
The development of these autonomous countries ( or Bantustans ) was seen as South Africa ‘s reply to decolonisation. For South West Africa the phase was set when the South African Parliament passed statute law in 1968 to widen self-determination to the “ Native States of South West Africa ” . In footings of the Development of Self-government for Native Nations in the South West African Act of 1968, these countries under traditional tribal authorization that were set aside, were to be reserved and set apart. The formal constitution of ethnically based “ fatherlands ” , were set aside were to be reserved and set for the sole usage and occupied by the several cultural groups who were populating in those peculiar countries [[ 8 ]] . The balance of the state ( with the exclusion of Walvis Bay ) was considered a individual political unit in which the white population predominated. Within the following 10 old ages, three of Legislative Councils which had been established in footings of this, were to get their ain coat of weaponries and flags. These were Owambo ( once Ovamboland ) , Kavango ( once Okavangoland ) and Caprivi ( once Eastern Caprivi ) . The coat of weaponries were to replace the South African and South West African weaponries on official certification, while each of the Flag Acts specified that the several flag shall be flown side by side with the National Flag of the Republic [ of South Africa ] at the edifices where the Legislative Council holds its Sessionss, at the chief administrative offices and at all chief territory offices of the Government, and at such topographic points as the Government may find ” . This pattern continued until the formal disintegration of the South West African “ fatherlands ” with the granting of independency to Namibia.
On 17 December 1920, South Africa undertook the disposal of South West Africa under the footings of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations and the authorization understanding was confirmed by the League Council. This authorization gave South Africa full power of disposal and statute law over the district as an built-in portion of South Africa. When the League of Nations was dissolved in 1946, its supervisory authorization for the district was inherited by the freshly formed United Nations. In 1966, the UN General Assembly revoked South Africa ‘s authorization. Besides on 26 August 1966, the South West Africa People ‘s Organization ( SWAPO ) began guerrilla onslaughts on the South Africa Defence Force ( SADF ) , infiltrating the district from bases in Zambia.
In a 1971 consultative sentiment, the International Court of Justice upheld UN authorization over Namibia, finding that the South African presence in Namibia was illegal and that South Africa hence, was obligated to retreat its disposal from Namibia instantly. By the 30th of January 1976, the Security Council reflecting the concern of the international community, adopted declaration 385 ( 1976 ) , that demanded that South Africa withdraw its illegal disposal from the Territory and reassign power to the people of Namibia. South Africa remained adamant and took no stairss towards the execution of that declaration.
In 1977, Western members of the UN Security Council ( Canada, France, Germany, United Kingdom, and the United States, known as the Western Contact Group ) launched a joint diplomatic attempt to convey a peaceful, internationally acceptable passage to independency for Namibia. As a effect, the Security Council adopted declaration 435 of 29 September 1978, incorporating an internationally acceptable program for conveying independency [[ 9 ]] .
In May 1988, a US mediation squad – headed by Chester A. Crocker, US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs – brought negotiants from Angola, Cuba, and South Africa, and perceivers from the Soviet Union together in London. Intense diplomatic maneuvering characterized the following 7 months, as the parties worked out understandings to convey peace to the part and do possible the execution of UN Security Council Resolution 435 ( UNSCR 435 ) . This declaration besides remained unimplemented until 1989. Alternatively, the business government continues adamantly to associate Namibia ‘s independency to the backdown of Cuban Forces from Angola. Intense treatments between the concerned parties continued during the 1978-1989 period.
The fortieth President of the United States of America ( USA ) , Ronald Wilson Reagan ( 1981-1989 ) , and the seventh and last caput of province of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ) Michael Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( 1985-1990 ) acme in Moscow May ( 29- June 1, 1988 ) it was agreed that Cuban military personnels would be withdrawn from Angola, and Soviet military assistance would discontinue, every bit shortly as South Africa withdrew from Namibia. Agreements to give consequence to these determinations were drawn up for signature at UN central offices in New York on December 1988 when South Africa agreed to stop its disposal and retreat its military personnels.
The People ‘s Republic of Angola, Cuba and South Africa agreed to a entire Cuban troop backdown from Angola. Congo-Brazzaville Protocol mandated the backdown of Cuban military personnels from Angola, paving the manner for Namibia ‘s independency through the New York Accords. This understanding known as the Brazzaville Protocol established a Joint Monitoring Commission ( JMC ) , with the United States and the Soviet Union as perceivers, to supervise execution of the agreements [[ 10 ]] . A bilateral understanding between Cuba and Angola was signed at UN central offices in New York City on December 22, 1988. On the same twenty-four hours, a three-party understanding between Angola, Cuba and South Africa was signed whereby South Africa agreed to manus control of Namibia to the United Nations. ( Tragically, UN Commissioner NA°7 Bernt Carlsson was non present at the sign language ceremonial. He was killed on flight Pan Am 103 which exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland on December 21, 1988 in path from London to New York.
South African foreign curate, Pieter Willem Botha, and an official deputation of 22 had a lucky flight. Their engagement on Pan Am 103 was cancelled at the last minute and P.W Botha, together with a smaller deputation, caught the earlier Pan Am 101 flight to New York ) . Pieter Willem Botha ( 12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006 ) , normally known as “ P. W. ” and Die Groot Krokodil ( Afrikaans for “ The Big Crocodile ” ) , was the premier curate of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive province president from 1984 to 1989.
Execution of UNSCR 435 officially started on April 1, 1989, when the South African-appointed Administrator General, Louis Pienaar, began the district ‘s passage to independency. Former UN Commissioner NA°5 and was UN Special Representative Martti Ahtisaari arrived in Windhoek in April 1989 to head the UN Transition Assistance Group ‘s ( UNTAG ) observer mission. The passage got away to a rickety start because, contrary to SWAPO President Sam Nujoma ‘s written confidences to the UN Secretary General to stay by a armistice and repatriate merely unarmed Namibians. It was alleged that about 2000 armed members of the People ‘s Liberation Army of Namibia ( PLAN ) SWAPO ‘s military wing, crossed the boundary line from Angola in an evident effort to set up a military presence in northern Namibia. UNTAG ‘s Martti Ahtisaari took advice from British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, who was sing Southern Africa at the clip, and authorized a limited contingent of South African military personnels to help the South West African constabularies in reconstructing order. A period of intense combat followed, during which 375 Plan combatants were killed? ? ? . At a hurriedly arranged meeting of the Joint Monitoring Commission in Mount Etjo, a game park outside Windhoek, it was agreed to restrict the South African forces to establish and return Plan elements to Angola. While that job was resolved, minor perturbations in the north continued throughout the passage period.
On 9 February 1990, the Constituent Assembly drafted and adopted a Constitution for a new Namibia. Namibia gained its Independence from South Africa business on 21 March 1990. There were immense jubilations that were attended by legion international representatives, including the chief participants, the UN Secretary-General and the President of South Africa Search Results Frederik Willem de Klerk who jointly conferred formal independency on Namibia. Frederik Willem de Klerk, frequently known as F. W. de Klerk, was the 7th and last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, functioning from September 1989 to May 1994. Sam Nujoma was sworn in as the first President of the newborn State on the 21 March 1990.
Meanwhile, on March 1, 1994, the coastal enclave of Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands were transferred to Namibia by South Africa. This followed 3 old ages of bilateral dialogues between the two authoritiess and the constitution of a transitional Joint Administrative Authority ( JAA ) in November 1992 to administrate the 780 kilometer ( 300 square stat mi ) district.
Post independency Namibia 1990-2007.
824 292 square kilometer
2 030 692
Literacy rate ( 15+years )
Official linguistic communication
Income per capita ( GNP-US $ )
Christianity 91 %
Reelection of Sam Nujoma
Dr. Sam Nujoma was reelected when he won the presidential elections of 1994 with 76, 34 % of the ballots. The lone other campaigner, Mishake Muyongo of the DTA was in 2nd topographic point. In 1998 until the scheduled presidential election, the undermentioned twelvemonth when Sam Nujoma would non be allowed to take part in since he had already served the two footings that the fundamental law allows, SWAPO amended the fundamental law, leting three footings alternatively of two.
Benjamin Ulenga who was antecedently the High Commissioner of Namibia to England left SWAPO and became one of the establishing members of Congress of Democrats ( COD ) in 1998, after colliding with his party on several inquiries. He did non O.K. the constitutional amendment, and criticized Namibia ‘s engagement in the Democratic Republic of Congo ( DRC ) , under leading of president Laurent Kabila.
They were able to make this since SWAPO had a two-thirds bulk in both the National Assembly and the National Council, which is the lower limit needed to amend the fundamental law. Sam Nujoma was reelected as president in 1999, winning the election, that had a 62,1 % turnout with 76,82 % . Second was Ben Ulenga who formed the COD party, that won 10,49 % of the ballots. Ben Ulenga was a former SWAPO member and Deputy Minister of Environment and Tourism, every bit good as the High Commissioner to the United Kingdom.