The statement that Australia was merely drawn into the war due to their confederation with America is true to a minimum extent. The Vietnam War was a military struggle between the communist North Vietnam and their Alliess, against South Vietnam and other states including America, Australia, Britain, France and New Zealand. The states that were Alliess of South Vietnam were signed into the Southeast Asia Treaty administration, besides known as SEATO. There were some factors which caused the Menzies authorities of Australia to direct military personnels into the Vietnam War in the sixtiess. The chief ground why Australia joined the war was because of the USA. Australia had to maintain a strong confederation with them in instance they needed aid during any war in the hereafter. Other grounds for fall ining the war were the fright of the Domino theory, SEATO, Containment, frontward defense mechanism policy, and anti-communism policies created by Robert Menzies.
Australia ‘s confederation with the USA was the chief ground for our engagement in the Vietnam War. The USA had been involved with the war since 1959 and needed Australia ‘s aid, although this did non get down until 1964, with no military personnels geting until 1965. Australia in a manner was forced to direct military personnels due to the ANZUS pact ; besides known as Australia, New Zealand and United States Treaty. This is a pact that shows an confederation, saying that these three states will contend together in any war within the Pacific Ocean country, hence all states fought together in the Vietnam War. Australia joined the confederation with these two states on April 29, 1952 in San Francisco, where the Australian Prime Minister, Robert Menzies read the understanding, negociating footings to the contract. The states ‘ desire for peace was the chief aim of the pact, wanting to publicly declare a sense of integrity, intending that no aggressive state would be enticed to assail Australia, New Zealand or the US. This was due to these states non wishing to stand entirely, because Alliess will assist us in destructing any encroacher.
Robert Menzies knew that Australia needed the confederation to stay stable in wartime. However, to stay as a safe state, free of war on our ain land, it was likely that the state would hold to provide military personnels to Vietnam to contend against communism. America had been in the war since 1959, nevertheless in 1961 it was clear that the war would non be settled for a long clip ; hence the current leader of South Vietnam requested aid to assist in its security and battle against the Communists. Australia responded to this petition by directing a sum of 60,000 military personnels into South Vietnam. This was along with USA ‘s response of a farther 200,000 military personnels to contend the Communists, dwelling of North Vietnam, China, Soviet Union and the Viet Cong, a communist guerilla ground forces.
The Containment Policy was a United States policy that Australia besides chose to follow in its military enterprise during the sixtiess. It was a scheme to seek and restrict or stop the spread of communism. First articulated by George F. Kennan, it was announced to the universe during the 1947 release of the Truman Doctrine. It stated that the United States of America would back up free peoples who were and armed minority enduring from outside force per unit area. This placed Australia as a perfect campaigner for assistance in the Communist conflicts. It would besides beef up and protect all states within the NATO understanding. This understanding was signed between North Atlantic states, consisting of 28 members. It is besides known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The United States was portion of this understanding and therefore we needed to maintain a good relationship with them. Australia joined this policy in its attempts to halt the spread of communism. This was a little factor in fright of the pact policy.
The South East Asia Treaty Organisation besides known as SEATO was established in 1954. The pact was signed by the United States of America, Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, The Philippines and Thailand. It agreed that these states would group together against states which were aggressive and would convey an terminal to their destructive and sometimes violent jokes. It was technically a corporate action group that helped each other when necessary. SEATO grouped together for the Vietnam War, hence this was a factor that Australia considered when directing military personnels into South Vietnam. Contrary to this, Australia had a minute pick to non direct military personnels to contend communism, as did Britain and France who refused to fall in this war. SEATO ended in September 1975 in New York. This was agreed through a meeting which ended the administration. Although, this understanding has ended, Australia and the US are still Alliess and if a war began it would be expected that these two states would help each other ‘s military enterprise.
On the 10th of January, 1968 Prime Minister John Grey Gorton ‘s Liberal party was elected by the Australian people. Gorton sensed that the failing escapade in Vietnam would arouse an American return to isolationism, a term mentioning to a state that does non affect itself with any other states about economic or political affairs. This would necessarily bring down harm on the ANZUS confederation, which would do immense jobs for Australia, as America and Britain would retreat from the Vietnam War, go forthing Australia to follow its ain defense mechanism policy. This independent defense mechanism policy was a likely result in the hereafter of the Vietnam War, hence PM John Gorton stated “ Australia wo n’t increase its troop committedness ” . This determination and statement was made as it was non deserving directing more military personnels to contend Viet Cong when the stoping of war could come much sooner than expected, if US military personnels are withdrawn. With Australia no longer directing military personnels into the war it ended the forward defense mechanism policy enabled by Robert Menzies, one of the cardinal grounds for Australia ‘s engagement in the war.
When fall ining the Vietnam War there were many factors associating to Australia ‘s confederation with America and the fright of being un-armed if a war of their ain broke out. However, there were besides many factors that were analysed entirely by Australian politicians, 1s that were non influenced by the US. The Forward Defence Policy was one of Australia ‘s ain determinations, with no influence by the United States. It was a major portion of Australia ‘s determination when fall ining the Vietnam War. The policy was based on the rule that Australia would prefer to contend communism in a foreign state before communist states come to contend them in Australia. This is because Australia would non desire their state yielding to the menace of communism in their ain metropoliss. If Australia had defeated communism along with the United States and South Vietnam, we would ne’er be threatened by communism in the hereafter, as the Domino consequence would non continue into Indonesia. Although this factor was strictly the Australian authorities ‘s determination it besides helped to beef up the relationships between the US and Britain, as these two states were seen as non-fearing states who were prepared to contend for their freedom and besides against communism. The Forward Defence Policy was really similar to the Containment Policy, another ground for Australia ‘s engagement in the Vietnam War. This is the policy of halting the spread or influence of a hostile power or political orientation, in this instance, communism.
The Domino Theory was the fright that communism could easy distribute throughout the universe, Australia being one of the first hit by the extremist thought. It was non merely Australia that was populating in menace of this theory but besides America. If South Vietnam was to lose their control of the state it would fall to communism. It was thought that this would so take to communism being spread into Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Philippines, Australia and New Zealand. This would greatly impact America as these states were Alliess. In a address by John F. Kennedy he stated, “ No other challenge is more deserving of our attempt and energy… Our security may be lost piece by piece, state by state. ” He was contending the spread of communism and halting the Domino Theory non merely to protect Australia, but over clip he was salvaging America every bit good. Under Kennedy ‘s regulation America would “ Pay any monetary value, bear any load, run into any adversity, back up any friend, and oppose any enemy to guarantee the endurance and success of autonomy. ” However Australia was unsure about the current spread of communism, because they already believed that communism had spread into Indonesia. Therefore, Prime Minister Robert Menzies thought that Australia would be following, an thought citizens and political powers could non bear. However, America was besides at hazard, if the Domino theory were to happen and Australia autumn to communism. This was due to Australia being loaded with of import natural and strategic resources, including Sn, gum elastic, rice, Cu, Fe ore and oil. If Australia fell to communism all of these resources would be taken by Viet Cong ruled states, necessarily cutting off the United States from these resources, impacting the planetary economic system.
Prime Minister Robert Menzies ‘ , anti-communism policy was besides a ground for Australia ‘s engagement in the Vietnam War. Before the war began, and prior to Menzies assignment for the 2nd clip as Prime Minister of Australia, he stated that they will be shortly declaring war on Communists. Menzies would make anything to stop communism in any state. In 1962, he attended a meeting in the United States, where it was decided that if America of all time required aid Australia would direct military personnels. Subsequently, on April 29, 1965, Menzies announced that a battalion of Australia soldiers were to be sent to South Vietnam in response to a petition for excess military personnels. However, Menzies was loath to state the citizens of Australia that his authorities had approached the United States and besides the Saigon Government in Ho Chi Min, Vietnam, bespeaking such an invitation. Menzies stated, “ We have decidedaˆ¦in close audience with the Government of the United States – to supply an foot battalion for service in Vietnam. ” Whilst Australia was still at war, the peak figure of soldiers contending at any one clip in South Vietnam was 60 1000, all of which were appointed by Robert Menzies.
The war was seen as a error after all Australian and American troop had arrived in South Vietnam to an onslaught of Viet Cong. Unfortunately ; it seemed that Australia had to go on the support for South Vietnam, as drawing out mid war, may hold been a catastrophe for America. Many people were annoyed at the Australian authorities for directing military personnels, nevertheless, one time in Vietnam, the mission of stoping communism had to be completed.
America besides had their ain policies such as the NSC-68, a policy of aggressive containment, to curtail the enlargement of communism by the Viet Cong and more so the Soviet Union. This had nil to make with Australia, turn outing that although the two states had connexions through Alliess and pacts, they were both single and had their ain grounds for fall ining the Vietnam War.
It is apparent that Australia did non fall in the war due to their confederation with America ; they merely chose to fall in the war themselves with small influence by other states. The ANZUS pact, SEATO and the containment policy were all big lending factors that led to Australia fall ining the Vietnam War due to their confederation with America in 1965. Conversely, the forward defense mechanism policy, Domino theory and anti-communism policy were all grounds for Robert Menzies elected to direct Australian military personnels to the Vietnam War. The grounds presented, that displayed Australia taking to travel to war is much stronger and outweighs Australia ‘s dim alibi that we had to help America ‘s war attempts against the Viet Cong. Many states did non adhere to the SEATO understanding and hence Australia did non hold to go to the war. Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies mislead the citizens by saying that we were asked to travel to war, in fact Australia chose to travel to the Vietnam War in 1965, turn outing to be a atrocious error.